The method of breeding new species

In recent years, many people in the world have succeeded to breed many new species. Especially a large number of mixed-breed flowers, which have been announced at Kamo Iris Garden several years ago, have caught great attention.

Target: First, clearly decide will type of flower you would like to grow. A good flower would not be made if the seeds are sewn together carelessly. Therefore, parents' selection is important. For natural crossing, seeds are good enough than the time-consuming hybridizing. However, in recent years, as the number of flying insects are decreasing, the ratio of fructification also decreases.

Seeds gathering: In the middle of June, the flower's fertilized ovaries will be enriched with seeds. If they are left unattended, the ovaries will break and the seeds will burst out. Therefore, when the ovaries get a little bit darker than usual, break them together with stems and take out all the seeds. Green seed will also be okay. Also, it would be better to plant more seeds from a few species than a few seeds from many species.

Seeds sowing: Seeds of Siebolds primrose will not germinate unless the been cooled once. So, use Gibberellin, a hormone drug, which is available on the market, in order to break this dormancy. Put the seeds in the Gibberellin solution of 300ppm for a day and night (Any concentration would do), and sow the seeds. Either use soil of planting seed from the market (Peatpan) or make one by mixing gravel and Peatmosss. Spread it as thin as possible because you don't want them to all gather at the same place. No additional soil should be added. Take good care of them; do not let them get dry and avoiding direct sunshine.

Transplanting: In about 40 days in August since the buds come out, the seedlings should have 2 to 3 leaves. Transplant them one by one into 7cm-deep pots and be careful not to cut off their roots. At this time, select only the lively and big buds and throw away the weak and small ones, which will never grow. Try to give them as much fertilizer in the shade so that they won't dry. At around the end of autumn, round buds in the shape of onion shaped ornaments should come out.

Selection: Most of them will bloom next year. Some of them would look like their parents, and others won't. Though it's very hard to throw away what you have grown yourself, make a drastic cut to sort them out. Their fundamental conditions could be:
- strong and easy to grow
- propagate well
- stem firmly stands
- has many flowers
On the top of that, if they have even small merits such as a very rare flower color or shape, leave them. Furthermore the next year, weed out ones which are similar to others more strictly. Less than one out of one hundred can be left. It is extremely difficult to overcome classically excellent flowers.

Polyploidy: Three-multiple flowers sometimes appear because of the method of growing new flowers. They are generally large and strong. The first one of them is Heavenly maiden made by Mr. Chojiro Nakamura. Though four-multiple flowers are said to be born because of mutation, they can be made by acting Colchicines on young buds. Tetora by Mr. Shuichi Hirao is one of them.

Naming: If one is distinguished as a new species, it is to appear outside after getting named. At that time, Japan Siebold's primrose Species General Directory Draft --- about 1700 species' names are listed ---, published by Naniwa Siebolds primrose Association, is available in order to avoid duplication of flower names. It is also fun to think about a name fitting to the flower.

Exhibitions of Sieboldfs primrose are held in various places. Please go to one of them once and enjoy the beauty of the flowers directly. On top of that, if you would like to grow Sieboldfs primrose, please contact the office.

a bibliography "Japanese Siebold's primrose" written by Mr.Tozo Suzuka

published by NHK